- Dr. S A

# Investment appraisal techniques used to evaluate projected financial returns on investment

**Different investment techniques used in evaluating projected financial returns on **

**Investment**

Investment techniques are used to determine expected and viability success of the business. Entrepreneurs can use it to help them invest their money inside a worthwhile and profitable enterprise when they are analysing the investment and opportunity potential of their company.Mostly, investment appraisal techniques measure cash flow and expected profit. However, there is a need for businesses and investors to consider factors such as social-economic environment, employees, and brand image impact. Investment appraisal techniques includes

**Rate of accounting return method**

It is an accounting technique used to measure profit in a project or investment in future. Rate of return on accounting expresses net profit as a percentage of investment over the capital investment. Also, it is popularly known as return on investment or return on capital.

**Advantages of accounting technique**

Calculation is straightforward and concise. It ensures that the total amount of savings or profits is taken into account over the course of an economic life. Profit after depreciation and tax is recognised using the rate of return technique. Profit after depreciation and tax is an important factor in investment appraisal proposals because it recognises net earnings. The technique makes it easier to compare new product development projects with low-cost projects and other competitive projects in the market. The technique aids in comprehending and providing a clear picture of the profitability of an investment or a project's return on investment. Because it recognises the accounting concept, the method makes it easier to calculate the rate of return on an investment. Accounting profit, on the other hand, is primarily calculated from the records of the accounts. The technique satisfies and takes into account the interests of the project owners, who are primarily concerned with the return on their investment. The method also has the advantage of measuring the current performance of an enterprise, which is beneficial.

**Limitations of rate of return technique**

Because of the differences in results when calculating the rate of return, the technique creates difficulties in making business decisions in the real world. The average rate has a flaw that makes it easier for people to be unaware of the time factor of funds. The technique is ineffective when evaluating projects that are completed in several installments over a period of time. In this method, external factors are not taken into account, and these factors have an impact on the profitability of the investments, as well. The accounting rate of return does not take into account more significant cash flows, but it does take into account accounting profits. However, when investments in a project are required to be made in stages, the technique could not be used in these circumstances.

**Discounted cash flow techniques**

It computes the amount of cash flow which may be received in the future based on historical data. Methods of cash flow are rate of accounting in return, profitability index, present net value and payback.

**Discounted Payback**

The payback method is one of the most straightforward investment appraisal techniques available, and it is concerned with determining the amount of time required to recover the costs incurred by a project. It is typically measured in terms of post-tax cash flow, which is the cash flow generated by an investment or project. The payback method is a straightforward method of calculating profits over the long-term of an investment, and it is not included in the discounted cash flow sections because the time value of money is not considered. In a nutshell, the payback technique specifies the amount of time it will take for an investment to generate enough cash flow to cover the costs of the initial investment. In addition to being simple to understand and calculate, payback has the advantage of being straightforward. Because it does not necessitate a great deal of financial knowledge and skills, it is easily comprehendible by the general public. Payback, on the other hand, has the disadvantage that any calculations made after the payback point and the time value of money are ignored.

**Advantages of payback period**

Payback focus on how money can be returned from a project or investment. The concept is very simple to calculate and understand. In a rough analysis, there is no need of calculating of calculating it using a calculator or spreadsheet. Payback is more useful for small investments meaning no need of engaging in complex calculations that take discount rates, the impact of throughput, and other factors into account.

**Net value**

Net value calculated by finding difference of cash inflows and outflow at a time. The amount of revenue a company generates is determined by the difference between its cash inflow and cash outflow values. Mentioned time value of money is incorporated by the present value of cash flows.

**Rate of return**

In finance, return rate refers to the percentage of time in which, if properly calculated, the Present Net Value calculation should equal zero. For the sake of summary, when the rate of return is high, there is a greater expectation that the investment or project will be successful, as well.

**Profitability Index**

The profitability index measures the amount of cash that an organisation will generate for every dollar that it invests in its business operations. It is calculated by subtracting the amount of the initial outflow from the amount of the anticipated cash flow (net value). The profitability index is one of the simplest methods of evaluating investment opportunities.