• Dr. S A

Investment Requirements and Behavioural Aspects

The set of rules, behaviours, or procedures that guide an investor's selection of an investment portfolio in the field of finance is referred to as an investment strategy. Individuals have varying profit objectives, and their varying abilities need the deployment of a variety of methods and strategies to achieve those objectives. Some decisions necessitate a trade-off between risk and profit. The vast majority of shareholders fall somewhere in the middle, willing to take some risk in exchange for larger returns on their investments. Making a financial commitment in anticipation of a future benefit or return is known as investing. Another way of putting it is that investing is the acquisition of an asset or an item with the purpose of earning income from the investment or appreciating your investment, which is an increase in the value of the asset over time.

When a person invests, they must always give up some existing asset, such as time, money, or effort, in order to reap the benefits of the investment. When customers earn a return on their investment in finance, they are said to have benefited from their investment. A capital gain recognised through a sale or investment, as well as unrecognised capital appreciation (or depreciation), as well as investment income such as dividend payments, can all be included in the calculation of the tax return. It can be a combination of capital gain and income, such as interest, rental revenue, and so on. In addition, currency gains or losses resulting from fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates may be included in the return. An investor's expectation for higher returns on riskier assets is often higher than the actual return. When a low-risk investment is undertaken, the return on that investment is typically minimal as well. In a similar vein, high risk is matched by large returns on investment. For beginning investors, it is generally recommended that they adopt a specific investment strategy as well as diversify their portfolio. A statistically significant reduction in overall risk can be achieved by diversification.

Possibilities for investment

Investment opportunities are the chances that a corporation, firm, or individual takes in order to make a financial investment. Investment possibilities come in a variety of shapes and sizes, and they can be traded. Entrepreneurs are well-known for taking calculated risks. Personal investments require greater diligence in order to balance rewards and risks. They are also more selective in their investment alternatives selection. Any company has the potential to make an investment by purchasing something that will increase in value in the future. Investment prospects are often distinct from business investment opportunities since they rely on a variety of factors. When it comes to investing, entrepreneurs look for chances that will generate a higher rate of return on their money. When making an investment decision, an entrepreneur takes into account a variety of aspects such as the quantity of cash needed, the nature of the investment, the size of the existing investment portfolio, and the risk appetite (Black, 2016, p.113). To ensure compatibility, an entrepreneur should employ analysis techniques to discover the ideal investment opportunity in which to put his or her money. The following are the business investment options that are currently accessible.

Buying and selling used clothing

The market value of second-tier complicated apparel is $38 billion dollars. It is an excellent investment opportunity that a company or an individual can take advantage of. It is rather simple to get started, especially if one has some old garments stashed away in the back of the closet. Because of new technologies, a firm that sells thrifted clothing can be transformed into the most successful investment opportunity available online.


It is the case for the majority of the top at-home investing company options available. Business investment opportunity dropshipping allows businesses to purchase products or goods directly from a manufacturer or supplier and send them directly to clients. When compared to other forms of ecommerce, the cost of getting started with drop shipping is inexpensive. There is no requirement to purchase products in bulk or to maintain inventory. Suppliers are responsible for ensuring that products are delivered on time. Due to the fact that the company or the individual does not have to own the products, dropshipping businesses can provide a wide range of products. Beauty products, clothes, and other stuff are among the items that will be sold.


The government's buildings and facilities require a high level of security to be effective. Because there are several security contracts available, an investor may take advantage of the investment opportunity by bidding on them. Armed patrols, after-hours patrols, camera installation, entrance security, and monitoring are all examples of security measures.

Pet items are being sold

The online pet store is one of the best investment opportunities that an individual or a corporation can pursue because it entails selling a variety of products to numerous friends who are treated as if they are children and are cherished and cared for. For example, they sell everything from healthy foods to luxury bedding and accessories. Because it offers homemade goodies or as a dropshipping business, the company earns a significant profit because consumers will continue to reward their pets indefinitely, allowing the company to grow.


Individuals who are interested in bidding on government contracts in the fields of electricity, building, or roadwork are encouraged to do so. The entrepreneur will enter the firm and supply materials and supplies for roads, new buildings, and the renovation of existing structures.

Preventative maintenance of machinery

Among the many different categories that a business or individual may be interested in are parking and facility maintenance and operations. These categories include parking and facility maintenance and operations as well as roadway maintenance and operations, electronics, office equipment, and vending machines for food services in order to keep institutions and agencies running smoothly. These maintenance contracts are provided by the government, and they are significantly better and more profitable for the business because the company will have stable long-term work (Pierrakis, 2019, p.346).

Investing in the tourism industry

In the tourism industry, there are numerous business investment opportunities available. An entrepreneur may choose to invest in tourism by developing and opening hotels, game lodges, amusement parks, nightclubs, casinos, and restaurants, among other things.

Investment in renewable energy sources

Uncertainty surrounds whether or not an investor will embrace and deliver renewable energy in Africa. Entrepreneurs may choose to pursue renewable energy sources such as cleaning services, biofuels, geothermal well drilling, inventive new sources, solar and wind power generation, among other things.

Investing in new technology

Because it is growing at an exponential rate, information technology is one of the best and most promising company investment prospects in 2021. Some of the chances in information and technology that investors may want to consider include: animation of firm production, anti-fraud systems, cyber security, web business, mobile transactions, and the development of mobile and web applications, among other things.

Buying and selling leftover food

Every year, food worth $990 billion is wasted, putting a dent in the international economy and depleting the environment's natural resources. Identifying a business investment opportunity and converting unsold and expired food into profit is possible for an entrepreneur. Businesses can make money by selling vegetables and fruits at a discount, converting waste food into fuel or insect protein, or creating a marketplace for surplus food.

Behavioural Aspects Of Management Control Systems

MCS is for management control system, and it is a tool for collecting and analysing information about the performance of many areas of a company's operations, such as the performance of its employees and the performance of its facilities. As well as assessing the performance of a firm in accordance to its declared goals and objectives, an MCS can also examine the success of a company in relation to other factors. An efficient management control system can assist a business in making the most of its resources and in putting its business goals and strategies into action in a timely way, hence increasing profitability.

The management control system's behavioural aspects are discussed below

Management control systems are concerned with the actions of individuals inside a given institution or organisation. They are also concerned with the behaviour of groups of people within an institution or organisation. Controls are attempts to exert control over an individual's behaviour with the intention of accomplishing organisational objectives through that behaviour. In order to help the organisation achieve its objectives, management controls ensure that individual organisational behaviour is maintained efficiently. An employee's behaviour is monitored and controlled by a method that decides whether or not it is suitable to direct or regulate how the employee performs a certain task. The capacity to direct the manner in which work is carried out is a prerequisite for any organisation or corporation. Training and evaluation systems are a type of behavioural control that falls under the category of behavioural control. In addition to the degree and nature of teaching supplied by an employer to a worker, there are several other types of behavioural control (Baier et al., 2018, 582).

Instructions are presented in a variety of formats and styles

Every employee is obligated by the policies and procedures of the organisation when it comes to where, when it comes to how, and when it comes to how to work. What is offered includes instructions on how to use specific tools, where and when to do a work, where to purchase services and materials, and what sequence will be followed when performing a specific operation, to name a few examples.

Education and training at a high level

The degree of teaching indicates that the more specific the instructions, the greater the amount of control the organisation has over the worker. When the instructions are very comprehensive, it implies that the worker is an employee of the organisation. This suggests that the worker may be an independent contractor because he or she has less control over fewer explicit instructions. There are a variety of jobs that require a varying amount of instructions. Because they require little or no teaching, certain firms may not require the services of trained individuals to provide guidance and instructions. An key aspect is whether or not the company has the authority to control the performance of its employees.

A business or organisation that gives an employee with training on how to perform a certain job suggests that the business or organisation is invested in seeing that the job is successfully completed. Training Through training, it will be proved that the worker is a legitimate employee. It is via the training supplied to employees on the job's processes and procedures that an employer and employee connection can be established. Independent workers and contractors, on the other hand, are free to choose their own procedures and methods of operation.

Behavioral manifestations of the consequences of regulating one's emotions

Because most people in organisations tend to oppose control, behavioural control has a negative impact on human relations. Suppressing innovation and initiative results in low morale and motivation, as well as the underutilization of human potential, as has been demonstrated. Subordinates will have a sense of anxiety as a result of the implementation of penalties and fines. As a result, people become more irritated and aggressive as a result of the push given to the groupings. People put in minimal effort merely to keep up with the Joneses and avoid exceeding the standards.

Most of the time, employees demonstrate control as a means of keeping subordinates from exercising their freedom and interfering with work performance. Employees believe that they are the only ones subjected to the controls that are in place. Employees' initiative and freedom are suffocated by the tight procedures and restrictions enforced by the organization's controls. Control requirements are typically difficult, unreasonable, and ultimately ineffective to achieve. Many people may not comprehend the aims of an organisation, and as a result, they find it difficult to follow the rules and processes in place (Raghu and Rodrigues, 2020, p.1295).

Consequences for Behavioral Regulation

Managers are expected to grasp the behavioural ramifications of their decisions during the implementation and control processes in their organisations. When managers exercise excessive control over their employees' activities, it is possible that undesirable consequences will result. Employees may view this as a misuse of authority, which may diminish their motivation to perform their duties. The following sections discuss the behavioural implications of control. The majority of the controls impose restrictions on employee freedom, and employees should reject these restrictions. Control carries with it certain power implications as well as social standing. The presence of a large number of controls inhibits creativity and flexibility. Controversy has an impact on the development of erroneous and incorrect information. In the event when workers do not have control over the situation, they may choose to resist control.

Strategies for dealing with the behavioural consequences of controlling techniques

Control is handled in an impartial manner, and this is ensured. It is essential that control is founded on the principles of exceptional and critical point, so that employees are not bothered in the least when they are pushed to their limits. When it comes to regulating employee performance, instead of focusing on finding fault with them, more emphasis should be made on human development and growth. The development of a work attitude with the fewest amount of deviations in order to increase employee morale and motivation is an important goal. Encourage two-way communication between the employee and the employer in order to increase the quality of the human relationships that exist between the two organisations. Trainees should be prioritised in order to ensure that performance is improved and that deviations are kept to the absolute lowest possible level.