• S. Banik

Legal System and the selected areas of the laws of contract, torts, and employment in the UK

The United Kingdom is governed by a constitutional monarchy. The monarch (rather than a president) serves as the Head of State, and his or her duties, functions, and powers are defined by convention. One of the conventions is that the king should be politically apolitical. England and Wales are governed by a common law system, which combines the passage of legislation with the establishment of precedents through the application of case law. The laws were created by the passage of legislation by Parliament, which is comprised of three houses: the House of Commons, the House of Lords, and the 'Monarch.' Members of the House of Commons are directly elected by the people, and traditionally, the Prime Minister has been a member of this body. The Court System as well as case law is under the supervision of the judiciary, which is fully separate from the legislative branch of government.

The term "contract" refers to a legally enforceable agreement that can be made either verbally or in writing, and that requires one person as well as legal entity to fulfil a duty to another party in exchange for money or other payment. A legally binding contract is made up of four essential components: 1. A proposal is made. 2. Compatibility 3. Consideration (either monetary or in-kind), and 4. Intention to enter into legal relations with the other party. The sale of products and services, as well as the sale of assets like as real estate, plant, and equipment, is frequently accomplished through the use of legally binding contracts. The tort of negligence describes the situation in which a wrongful act results in a damage sustained at the hands of some other person or legal entity whom have failed to exercise reasonable care and attention and has not averted a reasonably foreseeable risk. When two parties are involved in a transaction, there will almost always be a contractual relationship. It could be a relationship between a doctor as well as their patient, a relationship between an employer and their employee, or a relationship between a bank and a consumer. When attempting to determine whether or not a tort liability exists, the term "negligence" is critical. Employment law is concerned with the relationship that exists between a business and its employees. Workplace expectations, what employers can require employees to accomplish within the framework of their employment contracts, as well as employee rights are all administered by the Department of Labor and Industrial Relations. Among the many topics covered by employment law are salary and benefits, absence and sick leave policies, pension schemes and occupational dangers as well as discrimination in the workplace.

The Companies Act 2006 is a body of laws that acts as the major source of company law in the United Kingdom. It was passed in 2006. Included are the rules for incorporating a new company, the filing requirements of a company with the Companies House, the responsibilities of company directors, including the obligation to promote a company's success, the requirement to carry out an audit, a company's responsibility to the environment and the community, the interests of their employees, and their responsibilities to shareholders.

This legislation, known as the Insolvency Act 1986, is responsible for dealing with issues that arise as a result of both individual and corporate insolvency. There are two methods in which a corporation can be dissolved:

Winding up a business or striking it off - In order to wind up a business, certain relationships and obligations must be severed. These include any obligations and liabilities owing to customers, suppliers, and workers that must be fulfilled before the sale may be completed. Prior to the company's liquidation, all of the company's affairs are put in order.

When all long-term commitments and obligations have been terminated, the assets of the firm are liquidated (i.e. sold), and this process must be overseen by a licenced Insolvency Practitioner. The remaining proceeds are dispersed among shareholders to the degree that the business is solvent as well as all debts have been satisfied. If a firm becomes insolvent, the first order of business is to pay off creditors, even when there's nothing left over to give to the shareholders.

There is a well-established system of tax legislation in the United Kingdom, which is governed by Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs (HMRC). This system includes the following types of taxes:

• Corporation Tax is a tax levied on the taxable profits of a corporation.

• Value Added Tax (VAT) is a tax levied on products and services that is paid by the consumer.

• Stamp duty taxes are levied on the transfer of land or the transfer of ownership of stock.

• The amount of capital gains tax paid on the sale of capital assets

• Employment taxes paid in respect to employees in the United Kingdom.

HMRC is responsible for the coordination and administration of the United Kingdom's tax, payments, and customs authorities. HMRC is responsible for collecting the money that pays the United Kingdom's public services as well as the income of the United Kingdom Government. In general, under the self-assessment taxation system in the United Kingdom, the taxpayer is responsible for filing tax returns on his or her own. This will contain corporation tax returns, VAT returns, and employment tax returns, among other things. When HMRC receives these tax returns, it has the authority to contest the application of tax legislation. Appeals against HMRC decisions can be taken to an independent first-tier tribunal and just a second-tier tribunal if a taxpayer disagrees with the outcome of the appeal. Any further escalation can be pursued through the UK's courts system, all the way up to the Supreme Court.